Esteroides anabólicos – DrugFacts | National Institute on Drug Abuse (2023)

¿Qué son los esteroides anabólicos?

Los esteroides anabólicos son variaciones sintéticas —es decir, creadas por el hombre— de la hormona sexual masculina testosterona. El término correcto de estos compuestos es esteroides anabólicos androgénicos. Anabólico se refiere al desarrollo muscular, y androgénico al aumento de las características sexuales masculinas.

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Esteroides anabólicos – DrugFacts | National Institute on Drug Abuse (1)

Foto del NIDA

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Los médicos pueden recetar esteroides para tratar problemas hormonales, como por ejemplo la pubertad tardía. Los esteroides también pueden usarse para tratar enfermedades que causan pérdida de la masa muscular, como el cáncer y el sida. Pero algunos atletas y fisioculturistas los usan en forma inapropiada para tratar de mejorar su rendimiento o su apariencia física.

La mayoría de las personas que usan esteroides en forma indebida son hombres de entre 20 y 40 años que hacen levantamiento de pesas. El abuso de esteroides anabólicos es mucho menos común entre las mujeres. Es difícil saber en qué medida los esteroides se usan indebidamente en Estados Unidos porque no son muchas las encuestas nacionales que lo miden. Sin embargo, el uso entre los adolescentes por lo general es mínimo. Los datos del 2016 del estudio Observando el futuro (Monitoring the Future), que se realiza anualmente con financiación del NIDA, mostraron que el uso indebido de esteroides el año anterior entre los estudiantes de 8.° y 10.° grados disminuyó en los últimos años, mientras que se mantuvo parejo entre los estudiantes de 12.° grado.

¿Cómo se abusa de los esteroides anabólicos?

Las personas que usan esteroides anabólicos en forma indebida por lo general los toman por boca, los inyectan en los músculos o los aplican en forma de crema o gel sobre la piel. Las dosis pueden ser entre 10 y 100 veces más altas que las dosis que se recetan para tratar problemas médicos.

Las conductas comunes en el uso indebido de esteroides incluyen:

  • consumo cíclico: tomar varias dosis durante un tiempo, suspender el consumo un tiempo y luego reiniciarlo
  • consumo apilado: combinar dos o más esteroides distintos y mezclar esteroides orales con esteroides inyectables
  • consumo piramidal: aumentar lentamente la dosis o la frecuencia del consumo indebido de esteroides, llegar a una cantidad pico y luego reducir el consumo gradualmente hasta llegar a cero
  • consumo de meseta: alternar, sobreponer o sustituir esteroides para evitar que se produzca tolerancia

No existe evidencia científica de que ninguna de estas prácticas reduzca las consecuencias médicas perjudiciales de estas drogas.

¿Qué efectos tienen los esteroides anabólicos en el cerebro?

Los esteroides anabólicos funcionan en forma diferente a otras drogas de las que se abusa y sus efectos a corto plazo en el cerebro son distintos. La diferencia principal es que los esteroides no activan directamente el sistema de recompensa para causar una sensación de euforia; tampoco causan un aumento rápido de dopamina, que es lo que refuerza el comportamiento de consumo de la mayoría de los otros tipos de drogas.

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El uso indebido de esteroides anabólicos puede llevar a efectos mentales negativos como:

  • celos paranoicos (celos extremos e irrazonables)
  • irritabilidad y agresión extremas (“roid rage”)
  • delirio (creencias o ideas falsas)
  • disminución del buen juicio
  • obsesión

¿Qué otros efectos tienen los esteroides anabólicos sobre la salud?

Los esteroides anabólicos y las enfermedades infecciosas

Las personas que se inyectan esteroides aumentan el riesgo de contraer o transmitir el VIH, el sida o la hepatitis.

Encontrará más información sobre esta conexión en las siguientes publicaciones:

  • DrugFacts: El consumo de drogas y las infecciones virales
  • Hepatitis viral: una consecuencia muy real del consumo de drogas (en inglés)

Además de los efectos mentales, el consumo de esteroides por lo común causa acné grave. También causa hinchazón en el cuerpo, especialmente en las manos y los pies.

Efectos a largo plazo

El uso indebido de esteroides anabólicos puede causar problemas graves de salud —que incluso pueden llegar a ser permanentes— tales como:

  • problemas renales o insuficiencia renal
  • tumores y daños en el hígado
  • agrandamiento del corazón, aumento de la presión arterial y alteración en los niveles de colesterol, todos factores que pueden aumentar el riesgo de embolia e infarto aun en las personas jóvenes
  • mayor riesgo de coágulos sanguíneos

Otros efectos son específicos de la edad y el sexo:

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  • en los hombres:
    • disminución del tamaño de los testículos
    • disminución de la cantidad de esperma
    • calvicie
    • desarrollo de los senos
    • aumento del riesgo de cáncer de próstata
  • en las mujeres:
    • crecimiento de vello facial o vello excesivo en el cuerpo
    • disminución del tamaño de los senos
    • calvicie similar a la de los hombres
    • cambios o interrupción del ciclo menstrual
    • agrandamiento del clítoris
    • profundización de la voz
  • en los adolescentes:
    • retraso del crecimiento (cuando los altos niveles de hormonas de los esteroides le indican al organismo que detenga el crecimiento de los huesos antes de tiempo)
    • retraso del desarrollo de la altura (si los adolescentes consumen esteroides antes del período de crecimiento repentino)

Algunos de estos cambios físicos —como la disminución del tamaño de los órganos sexuales en los hombres— pueden aumentar los efectos mentales, tales como los cambios en el estado de ánimo.

¿Los esteroides anabólicos son adictivos?

A pesar de que los esteroides anabólicos no causan la misma euforia que otras drogas, pueden causar un trastorno por el consumo de drogas. Este trastorno existe cuando una persona continúa tomando esteroides en forma indebida aun cuando el hacerlo le acarrea consecuencias graves. La forma más grave de un trastorno por consumo de drogas es la adicción. La persona podría continuar usando esteroides en forma indebida a pesar de los problemas físicos, el alto costo de la droga y los efectos negativos que el consumo tiene en sus relaciones. Estos comportamientos dan prueba de la capacidad de crear adicción que tienen los esteroides. Las investigaciones también indican que algunos consumidores de esteroides comienzan a usar otras drogas, como por ejemplo los opioides, para reducir los problemas de sueño y la irritabilidad que causan los esteroides.

Quienes consumen esteroides en forma indebida pueden tener síntomas de abstinencia cuando dejan de hacerlo, entre ellos:

  • fatiga
  • inquietud o desasosiego
  • pérdida del apetito
  • problemas para dormir
  • disminución del deseo sexual
  • deseo intenso de esteroides

Uno de los síntomas de abstinencia más graves es la depresión, que a veces puede llevar a intentos de suicidio.

¿Cómo pueden obtener tratamiento los adictos a los esteroides anabólicos?

Algunas personas que buscan tratamiento para la adicción a los esteroides anabólicos han encontrado ayuda en una combinación de terapia conductual y medicamentos.

En ciertos casos de adicción, los pacientes han tomado medicamentos para ayudar a aliviar los síntomas de abstinencia. Por ejemplo, los médicos han recetado antidepresivos para tratar la depresión y analgésicos para el dolor de cabeza y los dolores musculares y de las articulaciones. También se han utilizado otros medicamentos para ayudar a restablecer el sistema hormonal del paciente.

Puntos para recordar

  • Los esteroides anabólicos son variaciones sintéticas de la hormona sexual masculina testosterona.
  • Los médicos pueden recetar esteroides para tratar varios trastornos médicos, pero algunos atletas y fisioculturistas los usan en forma indebida para mejorar su rendimiento o su apariencia física.
  • Las personas que consumen esteroides anabólicos por lo general los toman por boca, los inyectan en los músculos o los aplican en forma de crema o gel sobre la piel.
  • El uso indebido de esteroides se hace en dosis y horarios variados.
  • El uso indebido de esteroides anabólicos puede causar efectos a corto plazo, como celos paranoicos, irritabilidad y agresividad extremas, delirio, disminución de la capacidad de juicio y obsesión.
  • El consumo continuo de esteroides en forma indebida puede afectar algunas de las mismas vías cerebrales que otras drogas, entre ellas los sistemas de dopamina, serotonina y opioides.
  • El uso indebido de esteroides anabólicos puede causar problemas de salud graves, incluso permanentes, a largo plazo.
  • Otros efectos son específicos de la edad y el sexo.
  • Quienes se inyectan esteroides aumentan el riesgo de contraer o transmitir el VIH, el sida y la hepatitis.
  • A pesar de que los esteroides anabólicos no causan la misma euforia que otras drogas, pueden generar adicción.
  • Algunas personas que buscan tratamiento para la adicción a los esteroides anabólicos han encontrado ayuda en la terapia conductual y los medicamentos. En ciertos casos, los medicamentos pueden ayudar en el tratamiento de los síntomas de abstinencia.
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Infórmese más

Para obtener más información sobre los esteroides anabólicos, visite

Esta publicación está disponible para su uso y puede ser reproducida, en su totalidad, sin pedir autorización al NIDA. Se agradece la citación de la fuente, de la siguiente manera: Fuente: Instituto Nacional sobre el Abuso de Drogas; Institutos Nacionales de la Salud; Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos.

FAQs

What is the main cause of drug abuse? ›

Peer pressure is a strong factor in starting to use and misuse drugs, particularly for young people. Lack of family involvement. Difficult family situations or lack of a bond with your parents or siblings may increase the risk of addiction, as can a lack of parental supervision.

What are the 4 levels of the addiction process? ›

Some people take their time while others go from zero to 60 in a short period of time. No matter how long your journey is, most rehabilitation counselors agree that there are four main stages of drug addiction: experimentation, regular use, risky use/abuse, and drug addiction and dependency.

Which treatment is most effective in treating addiction? ›

Counseling and other behavioral therapies are the most commonly used forms of treatment. Medications are often an important part of treatment, especially when combined with behavioral therapies.

What are the causes of drug abuse among youth? ›

The earliest influences to smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs may come from the family. Factors that are related to drug use during adolescence include poor self-image, low religiosity, poor school performance, parental rejection, family dysfunction, abuse, under- or over-controlling by parents, and divorce.

What is the solution of drug abuse? ›

Structured treatment programs, substance abuse counseling, and 12-Step programs do help. While they are not the only sources of help, they are the most consistently effective, especially when combined in some systematic fashion. Treatment and counseling provide structure, support, and intervention.

What are 5 effects of drug abuse? ›

Side effects of drug addiction may include:

Nausea and abdominal pain, which can also lead to changes in appetite and weight loss. Increased strain on the liver, which puts the person at risk of significant liver damage or liver failure. Seizures, stroke, mental confusion and brain damage. Lung disease.

How does addiction start in the brain? ›

When someone develops an addiction, the brain craves the reward of the substance. This is due to the intense stimulation of the brain's reward system. In response, many users continue use of the substance; this can lead to a host of euphoric feelings and strange behavioral traits.

What are the 7 steps of the cycle of addiction? ›

Understanding each stage and the behaviors associated with each is a valuable way to identify when someone is at risk for an addiction or has already developed one.
...
These seven stages are:
  • Initiation.
  • Experimentation.
  • Regular Usage.
  • Risky Usage.
  • Dependence.
  • Addiction.
  • Crisis/Treatment.

What is drug abuse in simple terms? ›

(...uh-BYOOS) The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Drug abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

How can we prevent drug abuse among youth? ›

Consider other strategies to prevent teen drug abuse:
  1. Know your teen's activities. Pay attention to your teen's whereabouts. ...
  2. Establish rules and consequences. ...
  3. Know your teen's friends. ...
  4. Keep track of prescription drugs. ...
  5. Provide support. ...
  6. Set a good example.

What are three ways you can help someone who is addicted to drugs? ›

7 Tips for Helping Someone with an Addiction
  • Tip #1: Educate Yourself. Get information about addictions. ...
  • Tip #2: Get Support. ...
  • Tip #3: Get Counseling. ...
  • Tip #4: Seek Specialty Help. ...
  • Tip #5: Don't Enable. ...
  • Tip #6: Have Realistic Expectations. ...
  • Tip #7: Take Care of Yourself.
4 Sept 2013

How long does it take a person to overcome their addiction? ›

Most addicted individuals need at least three months in treatment to get sober and initiate a plan for continued recovery. Research shows that the best outcomes occur with longer durations of treatment. Lengthier treatment programs can seem intimidating at first, but they may end up bringing you the best results.

How does drug abuse affect the community? ›

Besides personal and family distress, additional healthcare costs and loss of future productivity place burdens on the community. Mental health problems such as depression, developmental lags, apathy, withdrawal, and other psychosocial dysfunctions frequently are linked to substance abuse among adolescents.

What are the major effects of drug abuse on youths? ›

Harmful use of substances has multiple direct effects on adolescents. The likelihood of unemployment, physical health problems, dysfunctional social rela- tionships, suicidal tendencies, mental illness and even lower life expectancy is increased by substance use in adolescence.

What are the effect of drug abuse in schools? ›

The study revealed that poor academic performance, school drop-outs, early marriages, aggressive and violent behaviour are the major effects of drug use/abuse by adolescents in schools.

What are the 10 ways to say no to drugs? ›

How to Say No to Drugs and Alcohol
  1. Make an excuse.
  2. Use a little humor.
  3. Change the subject.
  4. Offer to be the designated driver.
  5. Act like you're too busy.
  6. Explain the dangers of drugs and alcohol.
  7. Be honest.
  8. Keep saying no.

What strategies are used to prevent substance use and abuse? ›

What are the Basic Prevention Strategies?
  • Information Dissemination. ...
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  • Alternatives. ...
  • Problem Identification and Referral. ...
  • Community-Based Process. ...
  • Environmental Approach.

Why is it important to say no to drugs? ›

Reasons to say NO to drugs include drugs and alcohol mess up your mind, drugs and alcohol mess up your body, drugs and alcohol can kill you, and more. The delightful, eye-catching graphics capture students' attention and send important motivational messages.

How do drugs affect the brain? ›

How do drugs work in the brain? Drugs interfere with the way neurons send, receive, and process signals via neurotransmitters. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter in the body.

How does drug addiction affect a person's life? ›

Drug use can also result in long-term health outcomes that include: harm to organs and systems in your body, such as your throat, stomach, lungs, liver, pancreas, heart, brain, nervous system. cancer (such as lung cancer from inhaling drugs)

How do drugs affect personality? ›

Addiction often leads to risky or unethical behavior. As noted above, studies have found that prolonged substance use impairs your prefrontal cortex, which is involved with planning, attention, emotional regulation, and self-control. It's also involved with foresight.

How does the brain recover from addiction? ›

Our brains have an incredible ability to adapt and repair – even after prolonged AOD use and addiction. The brain continues to build brain cells and neural pathways throughout our life, and its ability to adapt and change – called neuroplasticity – allows it to modify, grow and reorganise itself after addiction.

How do you know if someone is addicted? ›

Signs someone else is addicted:

Changes in personality and behavior like a lack of motivation, irritability, and agitation. Bloodshot eyes and frequent bloody noses. Shakes, tremors, or slurred speech. Change in their daily routines.

How does addiction affect mental health? ›

If you or someone you care about is chronically using drugs or alcohol it can lead to changes in the brain, which can lead to mental health issues including paranoia, depression, anxiety, aggression, hallucinations, and other problems.

What is the last stage of addiction? ›

Stage 4: Addiction

Once the final stage is reached, you have entered addiction and complete dependency upon the substance. It's no longer a question about whether or not you're addicted to drugs or alcohol.

What are the 5 phases of recovery? ›

The five stages of addiction recovery are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance.

What are some risk factors for addiction? ›

What are the risk factors?
  • Genetics are 40%-60% of the Risk.
  • Personality Traits.
  • Concurrent Mental Health Disorders.
  • Developmental Factors.
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  • Drug characteristics: All drugs are not created equal.

What are 3 examples of drug abuse? ›

Some of the most common types of drug abuse include the following:
  • Stimulant Abuse. Stimulants are substances that cause physical and psychological functions to speed up. ...
  • Cocaine Abuse. ...
  • Adderall Abuse. ...
  • Meth Abuse. ...
  • Opioid Abuse. ...
  • Heroin Abuse. ...
  • Prescription Painkillers. ...
  • Sedative Abuse.

How many types of drug abuse do we have? ›

Generally, drugs that are abused are separated into three categories: stimulants, sedatives, and narcotics. The federal government has strict regulations for prescribing medications in each of these categories.

What is the introduction of drug abuse? ›

Drug abuse or substance abuse refers to the use of certain chemicals for the purpose of creating pleasurable effects on the brain. There are over 190 million drug users around the world and the problem has been increasing at alarming rates, especially among young adults under the age of 30.

What is the main goal of drug abuse education? ›

GOAL 1: Identify the biological, environmental, behavioral, and social causes and consequences of drug use and addiction across the lifespan. GOAL 2: Develop new and improved strategies to prevent drug use and its consequences.

What is the role of school in preventing drug abuse? ›

The role of the school in drug abuse prevention

However, it is the chief role of the school to explain skills, to convey knowledge and to create a sound morals base in linked to health and drug use, not to change actions that may be dogged by factors beyond the effect of the school.

How do you say no to drugs? ›

In a firm voice, tell the person you don't want to drink or use drugs. Say something like: - "No, I'm sorry, but I don't use...." - "No, I'm really trying to stay clean." - "No, I'm trying to cut back." Give a reason why you don't want to drink or use drugs.

What are substances that are abused? ›

Substance abuse, as a recognized medical brain disorder, refers to the abuse of illegal substances, such as marijuana, heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine. Or it may be the abuse of legal substances, such as alcohol, nicotine, or prescription medicines. Alcohol is the most common legal drug of abuse.

What is the role of forensic drug analysis in the processing of drug specimen? ›

Forensic toxicology is primarily concerned with the identification of chemical substances in specimens brought to a laboratory pertaining to a case. The substances include legal, therapeutic and over-the-counter drugs, illicit substances and other chemicals and poisons.

What is the purpose of refusal skills? ›

Refusal skills are defined as the skills that a person needs to develop to resist peer pressure and avoid risky situations. Youth and adolescents are often faced with situations where they need and want to refuse something that they do not want to do.

What percentage of addiction is genetic? ›

Scientists estimate that genetic factors account for 40 to 60 percent of a person's vulnerability to addiction. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is currently supporting a major research effort to identify gene variations that make a person vulnerable to drug addiction.

What does it mean to be in addiction recovery? ›

It just means that you are working on successfully managing your addiction and regaining control of your life. If you don't relapse after treatment, that's great! But once you're in recovery for your addiction or behavioral health condition, you're in recovery for the rest of your life.

How long does an urge last? ›

Like a wave in the ocean, an urge will reach a peak and then lose its force. Urge surfing helps you understand that the strength of an urge doesn't stay the same for long. After some time, it will weaken. Most urges don't last longer than 30 minutes.

What is the main cause of drug abuse? ›

Peer pressure is a strong factor in starting to use and misuse drugs, particularly for young people. Lack of family involvement. Difficult family situations or lack of a bond with your parents or siblings may increase the risk of addiction, as can a lack of parental supervision.

What are the five ways of preventing drug abuse? ›

  • study habits and academic support;
  • communication;
  • peer relationships;
  • self-efficacy and assertiveness;
  • drug resistance skills;
  • reinforcement of anti-drug attitudes; and.
  • strengthening of personal commitments against drug abuse.

What are the causes of drugs? ›

Adverse childhood experiences such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse increase your risk for drug addiction. Social pressure. Social pressure from peers and friends is a serious risk factor, especially for young people in danger of starting to abuse drugs. Lack of family support or involvement.

What is the problem with drugs? ›

It can harm your brain and body, sometimes permanently. It can hurt the people around you, including friends, families, kids, and unborn babies. Drug use can also lead to addiction.

What are 3 examples of drug abuse? ›

Some of the most common types of drug abuse include the following:
  • Stimulant Abuse. Stimulants are substances that cause physical and psychological functions to speed up. ...
  • Cocaine Abuse. ...
  • Adderall Abuse. ...
  • Meth Abuse. ...
  • Opioid Abuse. ...
  • Heroin Abuse. ...
  • Prescription Painkillers. ...
  • Sedative Abuse.

How does stress cause drug abuse? ›

Stress can cause changes in the brain like those caused by addictive drugs. This suggests that some people who experience stress may be more vulnerable to drug addiction or drug relapse. Those who become addicted to drugs may already be hypersensitive to stress.

What are the causes of drug abuse in India? ›

Easy availability of alcohol and drugs. Conflicts (usually intrafamilial). Religious reasons. Lack of social or familial support.
...
2. Psychological Factors:
  • Curiosity.
  • As a novelty.
  • Social rebelliousness.
  • Early initiation.
  • Poor control.
  • Sensation seeking. (Feeling high).
  • Low self-esteem (Anomie).
  • Poor stress management.

What are the cause of drug abuse in Nigeria? ›

Factors such as poor socioeconomic status, peer-group pressure, family problems and poor academic performance were commonly associated with drug abuse in Nigeria. Drug abuse has been a cause of many debilitating conditions such as schizophrenia and psychosis, leading to psychiatric admissions.

How can one prevent drugs abuse? ›

  1. study habits and academic support;
  2. communication;
  3. peer relationships;
  4. self-efficacy and assertiveness;
  5. drug resistance skills;
  6. reinforcement of anti-drug attitudes; and.
  7. strengthening of personal commitments against drug abuse.

How can we prevent drug abuse among youth? ›

Consider other strategies to prevent teen drug abuse:
  1. Know your teen's activities. Pay attention to your teen's whereabouts. ...
  2. Establish rules and consequences. ...
  3. Know your teen's friends. ...
  4. Keep track of prescription drugs. ...
  5. Provide support. ...
  6. Set a good example.

What are the 7 types of drugs? ›

DREs classify drugs in one of seven categories: central nervous system (CNS) depressants, CNS stimulants, hallucinogens, dissociative anesthetics, narcotic analgesics, inhalants, and cannabis.

How does drug use affect mental health? ›

Stimulant drugs can make you feel depressed, anxious and paranoid. Cocaine – a type of stimulant – can make previous mental health problems recur and trigger psychosis and schizophrenia. Ecstasy users can experience memory problems. Hallucinogenic drugs such as magic mushrooms can make any mental health issues worse.

How do I stop my stress addiction? ›

Then I realized I was addicted to stress.”
...
Six ways to kick your stress habit:
  1. Cut down on the cardio. If you still have time to hit the gym, focus on strength training instead. ...
  2. Load up on vitamin C and omega-3s. ...
  3. Drink less coffee. ...
  4. Sleep naked (in a really dark room). ...
  5. Download a meditation app. ...
  6. Eat well — and often.
4 Apr 2012

What defines drug abuse? ›

(...uh-BYOOS) The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Drug abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

What are the effect of drug abuse in schools? ›

The study revealed that poor academic performance, school drop-outs, early marriages, aggressive and violent behaviour are the major effects of drug use/abuse by adolescents in schools.

What is the impact of drug abuse in India? ›

Drugs remove inhibition and impair judgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidences of teasing, group clashes, assault and impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability, addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.

What are the effects of drug abuse on youths? ›

Substance-abusing youth are at higher risk than nonusers for mental health problems, including depression, conduct problems, personality disorders, suicidal thoughts, attempted suicide, and suicide.

What are types of legal drugs? ›

Legal drugs are known as over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (Rx) drugs. Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are all legal drugs as well.

What are the types of drugs and explain each? ›

Drugs can be categorised by the way in which they affect our bodies: depressants – slow down the function of the central nervous system. hallucinogens – affect your senses and change the way you see, hear, taste, smell or feel things. stimulants – speed up the function of the central nervous system.

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